ελληνικά elliniká
Pronunciation [eliniˈka]
Native to Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Turkey, Albania, Egypt, Georgia, Bulgaria, Romania, France, Ukraine, Russia<
Native speakers c. 13 million  (date missing)
Language family
  • Hellenic
    • Greek
Standard forms
Standard Modern Greek
Ancient dialects (extinct)
Modern dialects
Writing system Greek alphabet
Greek Braille
Official status
Official language in 2 countries
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, Western Asia Minor, Greece and the Aegean, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were previously used. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script, and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Coptic, and many other writing systems.

The Greek language holds an important place in the histories of Europe, the more loosely defined Western world, and Christianity; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes works of monumental importance and influence for the future Western canon, such as the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey. Greek was also the language in which many of the foundational texts of Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, were composed; the New Testament of the Christian Bible was written in Koiné Greek. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of classics.

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